Secondary Math II
Students will extend the laws of exponents to rational exponents and explore distinctions between rational and irrational numbers by considering their decimal representations. Students will learn that when quadratic equations do not have real solutions the number system must be extended so that solutions exist, analogous to the way in which extending the whole numbers to the negative numbers allows x+1 = 0 to have a solution. Students explore relationships between number systems: whole numbers, integers, rational numbers, real numbers, and complex numbers. The guiding principle is that equations with no solutions in one number system may have solutions in a larger number system. Students will consider quadratic functions, comparing the key characteristics of quadratic functions to those of linear and exponential functions. They select from among these functions to model phenomena. Students will learn to anticipate the graph of a quadratic function by interpreting various forms of quadratic expressions. In particular, they identify the real solutions of a quadratic equation as the zeros of a related quadratic function. When quadratic equations do not have real solutions, students will learn that that the graph of the related quadratic function does not cross the horizontal axis. They expand their experience with functions to include more specialized functions - absolute value, step, and those that are piecewise - defined. Students will focus on the structure of expressions, rewriting expressions to clarify and reveal aspects of the relationship they represent. They create and solve equations, inequalities, and systems of equations involving exponential and quadratic expressions. Building on probability concepts that began in the middle grades, students will use the languages of set theory to expand their ability to compute and interpret theoretical and experimental probabilities for compound events, attending to mutually exclusive events, independent events, and conditional probability. Students will make use of geometric probability models wherever possible. They use probability to make informed decisions. Students will apply their earlier experience with dilations and proportional reasoning to build a formal understanding of similarity. They identify criteria for similarity of triangles, use similarity to solve problems, and apply similarity in right triangles to understand right triangle trigonometry, with particular attention to special right triangles and the Pythagorean theorem. Students will develop facility with geometric proof. They use what they know about congruence and similarity to prove theorems involving lines, angles, triangles, and other polygons. They explore a variety of formats for writing proofs. Students will prove basic theorems about circles, such as a tangent line is perpendicular to a radius, inscribed angle theorem, and theorems about chords, secants, and tangents dealing with segment lengths and angle measures. They will study relationships among segments on chords, secants, and tangents as an application of similarity. In the Cartesian coordinate system, students will use the distance formula to write the equation of a circle when given the radius and the coordinates of its center, and the equation of a parabola with vertical axis when given an equation of its directrix and the coordinates of its focus. Given an equation of a circle, they will draw the graph in the coordinate plane, and apply techniques for solving quadratic equations to determine intersections between lines and circles or a parabola and between two circles. Students will develop informal arguments justifying common formulas for circumference, area, and volume of geometric objects, especially those related to circles.