Students will understand that all matter in the universe has a common origin and is made of atoms, which have structure and can be systematically arranged on the periodic table. Students will understand the relationship between energy changes in the atom specific to the movement of electrons between energy levels in an atom resulting in the emission or absorption of quantum energy. They will also understand that the emission of high-energy particles results from nuclear changes and that matter can be converted to energy during nuclear reactions. Students will understand chemical bonding and the relationship of the type of bonding to the chemical and physical properties of substances. Students will understand that in chemical reactions matter and energy change forms, but the amounts of matter and energy do not change. Students will understand that many factors influence chemical reactions and some reactions can achieve a state of dynamic equilibrium. Students will understand the properties that describe solutions in terms of concentration, solutes, solvents, and the behavior of acids and bases.